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Friction Welding Process

Friction Welding Process

It has been known very well that rubbing one object against another generates heat. Friction joining method is one of applied techniques, which join two pieces of metal by means of the frictional heat, known from primitive age.The biggest benefit of friction welding is the solid-phase joining of metals without melting. It also controls distortion and strength deterioration of the metal.

Basic cycle of friction welding

Friction Welding - Slide advances
1.Slide advances
Friction Welding - Spindle rotates
2.Spindle rotates
Friction Welding - Materials come in contact
3.Materials come in contact
Friction Welding - Generation of friction heat
4.Generation of friction heat
Friction Welding - Application of upset pressure
5.Application of upset pressure
Friction Welding - Slide retracts, work piece is released
6.Slide retracts,
work piece is released
1.Frictional heat generation process

When two materials, one rotating and another fixed, are pressed against each other at a constant pressure (friction pressure), the temperature of the contacting surface rises due to the heat caused by friction, which forms a high-temperature layer.
Two base materials strongly joined by interatomic attraction* The tensile strength is stronger than that of the base metals.

2.Upset pressure application process

After the high-temperature layer is formed, the rotation is stopped at once and higher pressure (upset pressure) is applied for a certain period of time. The materials, which are now under high temperature and high pressure, go through a reaction that forms solid state bonding.

*About Van der Waals force

About van der Waals forces - friction welding process

  1. Inter-atomic distance of two base materials, whose deformation resistance has been reduced due to softening caused by friction heat, narrows.
  2. Bonding completes when the point B, where the attractive force, which is force that the atoms of the base material surfaces pull toward each other upon contact, is drawn to the point I, where the attractive force comes to equilibrium with the repulsive force.
  3. Therefore, formation of the equilibrium becomes possible at the temperature less than or equal to the melting point of the metal.
  4. Even when welding dissimilar metals, two metals are bonded if an equilibrium is reached between its attractive force and repulsive force.


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